Conferences and Congress
EuPRAXIA – A compact, cost-efficient particle and radiation source
Authors: Weikum M.K.; Akhter T.; Alesini P.D.; Alexandrova A.S.; Anania M.P.; Andreev N.E.; Andriyash I.; Aschikhin A.; Assmann R.W.; Audet T.; Bacci A.; Barna I.F.; Beaton A.; Beck A.; Beluze A.; Bernhard A.; Bielawski S.; Bisesto F.G.; Brandi F.; Bringer O.; Brinkmann R.; Brundermann E.; Buscher M.; Bussmann M.; Bussolino G.C.; Chance A.; Chanteloup J.C.; Chen M.; Chiadroni E.; Cianchi A.; Clarke J.; Cole J.; Couprie M.E.; Croia M.; Cros B.; Crump P.; Dattoli G.; Delerue N.; Delferriere O.; Delinikolas P.; De Nicola S.; Dias J.; Dorda U.; Fedele R.; Pousa A.F.; Ferrario M.; Filippi F.; Fils J.; Fiore G.; Fonseca R.A.; Galimberti M.; Gallo A.; Garzella D.; Gastinel P.; Giove D.; Giribono A.; Gizzi L.A.; Gruner F.J.; Habib A.F.; Heinemann T.; Hidding B.; Holzer B.J.; Hooker S.M.; Hosokai T.; Hubner M.; Irman A.; Jafarinia F.; Jaroszynski D.A.; Jaster-Merz S.; Joshi C.; Kaluza M.C.; Kando M.; Karger O.S.; Karsch S.; Khazanov E.; Khikhlukha D.; Knetsch A.; Kocon D.; Koester P.; Kononenko O.; Korn G.; Kostyukov I.; Kruchinin K.; Labate L.; Lechner C.; Leemans W.P.; Lehrach A.; Li F.Y.; Li X.; Libov V.; Lifschitz A.; Litvinenko V.; Lu W.; Lundh O.; Maier A.R.; Malka V.; Manahan G.G.; Mangles S.P.D.; Marchetti B.; Marocchino A.; De La Ossa A.M.; Martins J.L.; Mason P.; Massimo F.; Mathieu F.; Maynard G.; Mazzotta Z.; Mehrling T.J.; Molodozhentsev A.Y.; Mostacci A.; Muller A.S.; Murphy C.D.; Najmudin Z.; Nghiem P.A.P.; Nguyen F.; Niknejadi P.; Osterhoff J.; Papadopoulos D.; Patrizi B.; Petrillo V.; Pocsai M.A.; Poder K.; Pompili R.; Pribyl L.; Pugacheva D.; Romeo S.; Rajeev P.P.; Conti M.R.; Rossi A.R.; Rossmanith R.; Roussel E.; Sahai A.A.; Sarri G.; Schaper L.; Scherkl P.; Schramm U.; Schroeder C.B.; Schwindling J.; Scifo J.; Serafini L.; Sheng Z.M.; Silva L.O.; Silva T.; Simon C.; Sinha U.; Specka A.; Streeter M.J.V.; Svystun E.N.; Symes D.; Szwaj C.; Tauscher G.; Terzani D.; Thompson N.; Toci G.; Tomassini P.; Torres R.; Ullmann D.; Vaccarezza C.; Vannini M.; Vieira J.M.; Villa F.; Wahlstrom C.-G.; Walczak R.; Walker P.A.; Wang K.; Welsch C.P.; Wolfenden J.; Xia G.; Yabashi M.; Yu L.; Zhu J.; Zigler A.
Abstract: Plasma accelerators present one of the most suitable candidates for the development of more compact particle acceleration technologies, yet they still lag behind radiofrequency (RF)-based devices when it comes to beam quality, control, stability and power efficiency. The Horizon 2020-funded project EuPRAXIA (“European Plasma Research Accelerator with eXcellence In Applications”) aims to overcome the first three of these hurdles by developing a conceptual design for a first international user facility based on plasma acceleration. In this paper we report on the main features, simulation studies and potential applications of this future research infrastructure.
Conference title: Place:
KeyWords: Plasmas (physics) | Lasers | Laser wakefield
Status of the Horizon 2020 EuPRAXIA conceptual design study
Authors: Weikum M.K.; Akhter T.; Alesini D.; Alexandrova A.S.; Anania M.P.; Andreev N.E.; Andriyash I.A.; Aschikhin A.; Assmann R.W.; Audet T.; Bacci A.; Barna I.F.; Beaton A.; Beck A.; Beluze A.; Bernhard A.; Bielawski S.; Bisesto F.G.; Brandi F.; Brinkmann R.; Bruendermann E.; Buscher M.; Bussmann M.H.; Bussolino G.; Chance A.; Chen M.; Chiadroni E.; Cianchi A.; Clarke J.A.; Cole J.; Couprie M.E.; Croia M.; Cros B.; Crump P.A.; Dattoli G.; Del Dotto A.; Delerue N.; De Nicola S.; Dias J.M.; Dorda U.; Fedele R.; Ferran Pousa A.; Ferrario M.; Filippi F.; Fiore G.; Fonseca R.A.; Galimberti M.; Gallo A.; Ghaith A.; Giove D.; Giribono A.; Gizzi L.A.; Gruner F.J.; Habib A.F.; Haefner C.; Heinemann T.; Hidding B.; Holzer B.J.; Hooker S.M.; Hosokai T.; Huebner M.; Irman A.; Jafarinia F.J.; Jaroszynski D.A.; Joshi C.; Kaluza M.; Kando M.; Karger O.S.; Karsch S.; Khazanov E.; Khikhlukha D.; Knetsch A.; Kocon D.; Koester P.; Kononenko O.S.; Korn G.; Kostyukov I.; Kruchinin K.O.; Labate L.; Blanc C.L.; Lechner C.; Leemans W.; Lehrach A.; Li X.; Libov V.; Lifschitz A.; Litvinenko V.; Lu W.; Lundh O.; Maier A.R.; Malka V.; Manahan G.G.; Mangles S.P.D.; Marchetti B.; Martinez De La Ossa A.; Martins J.L.; Mason P.D.; Massimo F.; Mathieu F.; Maynard G.; Mazzotta Z.; Molodozhentsev A.Y.; Mostacci A.; Mueller A.-S.; Murphy C.D.; Najmudin Z.; Nghiem P.A.P.; Nguyen F.; Niknejadi P.; Osterhoff J.; Oumbarek Espinos D.; Papadopoulos D.N.; Patrizi B.; Petrillo V.; Pocsai M.A.; Poder K.; Pompili R.; Pribyl L.; Pugacheva D.; Rajeev P.P.; Romeo S.; Rossetti Conti M.; Rossi A.R.; Rossmanith R.; Roussel E.; Sahai A.A.; Sarri G.; Schaper L.; Scherkl P.; Schramm U.; Schroeder C.B.; Scifo J.; Serafini L.; Sheng Z.M.; Siders C.; Silva L.O.; Silva T.; Simon C.; Sinha U.; Specka A.; Streeter M.J.V.; Svystun E.N.; Symes D.; Szwaj C.; Tauscher G.E.; Terzani D.; Thompson N.; Toci G.; Tomassini P.; Torres R.; Ullmann D.; Vaccarezza C.; Vannini M.; Vieira J.M.; Villa F.; Wahlstrom C.-G.; Walczak R.; Walker P.A.; Wang K.; Welsch C.P.; Wiggins S.M.; Wolfenden J.; Xia G.; Yabashi M.; Zhu J.; Zigler A.
Abstract: The Horizon 2020 project EuPRAXIA (European Plasma Research Accelerator with eXcellence In Applications) is producing a conceptual design report for a highly compact and cost-effective European facility with multi-GeV electron beams accelerated using plasmas. EuPRAXIA will be set up as a distributed Open Innovation platform with two construction sites, one with a focus on beam-driven plasma acceleration (PWFA) and another site with a focus on laser-driven plasma acceleration (LWFA). User areas at both sites will provide access to free-electron laser pilot experiments, positron generation and acceleration, compact radiation sources, and test beams for high-energy physics detector development. Support centres in four different countries will complement the pan-European implementation of this infrastructure. Conference title:
KeyWords: Plasmas (physics) | Lasers | Laser wakefield
Nuclear Reactions Studies in Laser-Plasmas at the forthcoming ELI-NP facilities
Authors: Lanzalone G., Muoio A., Altana C., Frassetto M., Malferrari L., Mascali D., Odorici F., Tudisco S., Gizzi LA., Labate L., Puglia SMR., Trifiro A.
Abstract: This work aim to prepare a program of studies on nuclear physics and astrophysics, which will be conducted at the new ELI-NP Laser facility, which actually is under construction in Bucharest, Romania. For the arguments treated, such activity has required also a multidisciplinary approach and knowledge in the fields of nuclear physics, astrophysics, laser and plasma physics join with also some competences on solid state physics related to the radiation detection. A part of this work has concerned to the experimental test, which have been performed in several laboratories and in order to study and increase the level of knowledge on the different parts of the project. In particular have been performed studies on the laser matter interaction at the ILIL laboratory of Pisa Italy and at the LENS laboratory in Catania, where (by using different experimental set-ups) has been investigated some key points concerning the production of the plasma stream. Test has been performed on several target configurations in terms of: composition, structure and size. All the work has been devoted to optimize the conditions of target in order to have the best performance on the production yields and on energies distribution of the inner plasma ions. A parallel activity has been performed in order to study the two main detectors, which will constitute the full detections system, which will be installed at the ELI-NP facility.
Conference title: International Workshop on Nuclear Reactions on Nucleons and Nuclei
KeyWords: ion-acceleration; reaction-rates; astrophysics; physics;
Horizon 2020 EuPRAXIA design study
Authors: Walker P.A., Alesini P.D., Alexandrova A.S., Anania M.P., Andreev N.E., Andriyash I., Aschikhin A., Assmann R.W., Audet T., Bacci A., Barna I.F., Beaton A., Beck A., Beluze A., Bernhard A., Bielawski S., Bisesto F.G., Boedewadt J., Brandi F., Bringer O., Brinkmann R., Bründermann E., Büscher M., Bussmann M., Bussolino G.C., Chance A., Chanteloup J.C., Chen M., Chiadroni E., Cianchi A., Clarke J., Cole J., Couprie M.E., Croia M., Cros B., Dale J., Dattoli G., Delerue N., Delferriere O., Delinikolas P., Dias J., Dorda U., Ertel K., Ferran Pousa A., Ferrario M., Filippi F., Fils J., Fiorito R., Fonseca R.A., Galimberti M., Gallo A., Garzella D., Gastinel P., Giove D., Giribono A., Gizzi L.A., Grüner F.J., Habib A.F., Haefner L.C., Heinemann T., Hidding B., Holzer B.J., Hooker S.M., Hosokai T., Irman A., Jaroszynski D.A., Jaster-Merz S., Joshi C., Kaluza M.C., Kando M., Karger O.S., Karsch S., Khazanov E., Khikhlukha D., Knetsch A., Kocon D., Koester P., Kononenko O., Korn G., Kostyukov I., Labate L., Lechner C., Leemans W.P., Lehrach A., Li F.Y., Li X., Libov V., Lifschitz A., Litvinenko V., Lu W., Maier A.R., Malka V., Manahan G.G., Mangles S.P.D., Marchetti B., Marocchino A., Martinez De La Ossa A., Martins J.L., Massimo F., Mathieu F., Maynard G., Mehrling T.J., Molodozhentsev A.Y., Mosnier A., Mostacci A., Mueller A.S., Najmudin Z., Nghiem P.A.P., Nguyen F., Niknejadi P., Osterhoff J., Papadopoulos D., Patrizi B., Pattathil R., Petrillo V., Pocsai M.A., Poder K., Pompili R., Pribyl L., Pugacheva D., Romeo S., Rossi A.R., Roussel E., Sahai A.A., Scherkl P., Schramm U., Schroeder C.B., Schwindling J., Scifo J., Serafini L., Sheng Z.M., Silva L.O., Silva T., Simon C., Sinha U., Specka A., Streeter M.J.V., Svystun E.N., Symes D., Szwaj C., Tauscher G., Thomas A.G.R., Thompson N., Toci G., Tomassini P., Vaccarezza C., Vannini M., Vieira J.M., Villa F., Wahlström C.-G., Walczak R., Weikum M.K., Welsch C.P., Wiemann C., Wolfenden J., Xia G., Yabashi M., Yu L., Zhu J., Zigler A.
Abstract: The Horizon 2020 Project EuPRAXIA (\”European Plasma Research Accelerator with eXcellence In Applications\”) is preparing a conceptual design report of a highly compact and cost-effective European facility with multi-GeV electron beams using plasma as the acceleration medium. The accelerator facility will be based on a laser and/or a beam driven plasma acceleration approach and will be used for photon science, high-energy physics (HEP) detector tests, and other applications such as compact X-ray sources for medical imaging or material processing. EuPRAXIA started in November 2015 and will deliver the design report in October 2019. EuPRAXIA aims to be included on the ESFRI roadmap in 2020.
More Information: Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA); The American Physical Society Division of Physics of Beams APS-DB and the United States National Science Foundation (Plasma Physics and Accelerator Science); The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) KeyWords: PLASMA WAKEFIELD ACCELERATOR; ELECTRON-BEAMS; WAVES; Project EuPRAXIA; High energy physics
Design and characterization of Yb and Nd doped transparent ceramics for high power laser applications: Recent advancements
Authors: Lapucci A., Vannini M., Ciofini M., Pirri A., Nikl M., Li J., Esposito L., Biasini V., Hostasa J., Goto T., Boulon G., Maksimov R.N., Gizzi L., Labate L., Toci G.
Abstract: We report a review on our recent developments in Yttebium and Neodymium doped laser ceramics, along two main research lines. The first is the design and development of Yb:YAG ceramics with non uniform doping distribution, for the management of thermo-mechanical stresses and for the mitigation of ASE: layered structures have been produced by solid state reactive sintering, using different forming processes (spray drying and cold press of the homogenized powders, tape cast of the slurry); samples have been characterized and compared to FEM analysis. The second is the investigation of Lutetium based ceramics (such as mixed garnets LuYAG and Lu2O3); this interest is mainly motivated by the favorable thermal properties of these hosts under high doping. We recently obtained for the first time high efficiency laser emission from Yb doped LuYAG ceramics. The investigation on sesquioxides has been focused on Nddoped Lu2O3 ceramics, fabricated with the Spark Plasma Sintering method (SPS). We recently achieved the first laser emission above 1 W from Nd doped Lu2O3 ceramics fabricated by SPS.
More Information: – Austrian Ministry for Transport, Innovation, and Technology; City of Gmunden; et al.; Government of Upper Austria; Trotec Laser GmbH; Trumpf Maschinen Austria GmbH + Co. KG
KeyWords: High power lasers; Laser applications; Sintering; Spark plasma sintering; Ytterbium, Design and Development; High-efficiency lasers; Laser ceramics; Layered ceramics; Nd: YAG; Spark plasma sintering method; SPS method; Thermo-mechanical stress, Ceramic materials
Laser-driven particle acceleration for radiobiology and radiotherapy: Where we are and where we are going
Authors: Giulietti A.
Abstract: Radiation therapy of tumors progresses continuously and so do devices, sharing a global market of about $ 4 billions, growing at an annual rate exceeding 5%. Most of the progress involves tumor targeting, multi-beam irradiation, reduction of damage on healthy tissues and critical organs, dose fractioning. This fast-evolving scenario is the moving benchmark for the progress of the laser-based accelerators towards clinical uses. As for electrons, both energy and dose requested by radiotherapy are available with plasma accelerators driven by lasers in the power range of tens of TW but several issues have still to be faced before getting a prototype device for clinical tests. They include capability of varying electron energy, stability of the process, reliability for medical users. On the other side hadron therapy, presently applied to a small fraction of cases but within an exponential growth, is a primary option for the future. With such a strong motivation, research on laser-based proton/ion acceleration has been supported in the last decade in order to get performances suitable to clinical standards. None of these performances has been achieved so far with laser techniques. In the meantime a rich crop of data have been obtained in radiobiological experiments performed with beams of particles produced with laser techniques. It is quite significant however that most of the experiments have been performed moving bio samples to laser labs, rather moving laser equipment to bio labs or clinical contexts. This give us the measure that laser community cannot so far provide practical devices usable by non-laser people. Conference title:
More Information: Author is deeply grateful to Toshi Tajima for his magistral teaching and friendly support. Author also acknowledges financial support by the ELI-Italy project funded by the Italian Ministry of Research and University. The author also thanks the whole team at the Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory of INO-CNR in Pisa for reference information and for the continuing enlightening discussions on the subject.
KeyWords: Laser-driven particle accelerators; Radiobiology; Radiotherapy; Dosimetry; Radiation safety
High-quality electron bunch production for high-brilliance Thomson Scattering sources
Authors: Tomassini P., Labate L., Londrillo P., Fedele R., Terzani D., Gizzi L.A. Abstract: Laser Wake Field accelerated electrons need to exhibit a good beam-quality to comply with requirements of FEL or high brilliance Thomson Scattering sources, or to be post-accelerated in a further LWFA stage towards TeV energy scale. Controlling electron injection, plasma density profile and laser pulse evolution are therefore crucial tasks for high-quality e-bunch production. A new bunch injection scheme, the Resonant Multi-Pulse Ionization Injection (RMPII), is based on a single, ultrashort Ti:Sa laser system. In the RMPII the main portion of the pulse is temporally shaped as a sequence of resonant sub-pulses, while a minor portion acts as an ionizing pulse. Simulations show that high-quality electron bunches with energies in the range 265MeV -1.15GeV, normalized emittance as low as 0.08 mm·mrad and 0.65% energy spread can be obtained with a single 250 TW Ti:Sa laser system. Applications of the e-beam in high-brilliance Thomson Scattering source, including 1.5 – 26.4 MeV gamma sources with peak brilliance up to 1.10(28)ph/(s.mm(2) . mrad(2) . 0.1% bw), are reported.
More Information: Authors wish to thank Vittoria Petrillo and Luca Serafini for their unvaluable discussions about FEL and Thomson Scattering. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union\’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No 653782 – EuPRAXIA.
KeyWords: LASER-WAKEFIELD; ACCELERATION; INJECTION; BEAMS; RAYS
Laser and optical properties of Yb:YAG ceramics with layered doping distribution: design, characterization and evaluation of different production processes
Authors: Toci G., Lapucci A., Ciofini M., Esposito L., Hostaša J., Gizzi L. A., Labate L., Ferrara P., Pirri A., Vannini M.
Abstract: The laser, optical and spectroscopic properties of multilayer Yb:YAG ceramic structures, differently activated, were investigated. The structures were designed by means of Finite Element Modeling, adjusting the doping distributions to reduce peak temperature, surface deformation and thermally induced stresses, depending on the pump and cooling geometry. Two ceramic processes were used, i.e. dry pressing of spray-dried powders (SD) and tape casting (TC), resulting in different defect density and size distribution: TC gives a more uniform transmission, whereas SD results in larger, unevenly scattered defects. The spectroscopic properties were found independent from the production process. The laser performance has been characterized under high intensity pumping in a longitudinally diode pumped laser cavity, comparing the behavior of the different structures in terms of slope efficiency, stability under increasing Thermal load, spatial uniformity of laser emission. Slope efficiency values as high as 58% in Quasi-CW pumping conditions and 54% in CW conditions was measured in two-layers structures. The production process and the number of layers influenced the behavior of the samples, in particular regarding the spatial uniformity of the laser emission. Samples made by tape casting have shown overall a better thermal stability with respect to the samples made by spray drying.
KeyWords: Ceramic materials; Defect density; Efficiency; Finite element method; Lasers; Multilayers; Optical multilayers; Optical properties; Pumping (laser); Slope stability; Solid state devices; Spray drying; Structural design; Thermal conductivity; Thermal effects; Ytterbium, Different structure; Multilayer ceramics; Spectroscopic property; Spray-dried powders; Surface deformation; Thermally induced stress; Transparent ceramic; Yb laser, Solid state lasers
Study of nuclear reactions in laser plasmas at future ELI-NP facility
Authors: Lanzalone G., Altana C., Anzalone A., Cappuzzello F., Cavallaro M., Gizzi L.A., Labate L., Lamia L., Mascali D., Muoio A., Negoita F., Odorici F., Petrascu H., Trifirò A., Trimarchi M., Tudisco S.
Abstract: In this contribution we will present the future activities that our collaboration will carry out at ELI-NP (Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics), the new multi peta-watt Laser facility, currently under construction at Bucharest (Romania). The activities concerns the study of nuclear reactions in laser plasmas. In this framework we proposed the construction of a new, general-purpose experimental set-up able to detect and identify neutrons and charged particles.
KeyWords: Beams; Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics; Plasmas
Thomson parabola spectrometer: A powerful tool for on-line plasma analysis Authors: Altana C., Muoio A., Schillaci F., Cirrone G.A.P., Lanzalone G., Tudisco S., Brandi F., Cristoforetti G., Koester P., Fulgentini L., Labate L., Gizzi L.A. Abstract: In this paper we report on a new powerful and self-consistent analysis technique aimed in order to get information online on laser generated plasmas. Performance of the method has been carried out during two set of measurement by using two different lasers. The first set of data has been collected at LENS Laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania by using a laser which produces pulses having energies of 2 J and temporal duration of 6 ns, while the second set of data has been collected at ILIL of INO-CNR in Pisa with a laser system capable of delivering pulses of up to 10 mJ in 40 fs.
More Information: INSPEC Accession Number: 15971637
KeyWords: Thomson Parabola Spectrometer; Line plasma analysis; Self-consistent analysis technique; laser generated plasmas
The Fermilab Muon g-2 Experiment
Authors: Venanzoni G., Albahri B.A.T., Al-Kilani S., Allspach D., Alonzi L.P., Anastasi A., Azfar F., Babusci D., Baessler S., Baranov V.A., Barzi E., Bjorkquist R., Bowcock T., Cantatore G., Carey R.M., Carroll J., Casey B., Cauz D., Chapelain A., Chappa S., Chattopadhyay S., Chislett R., Chupp T.E., Convery M., Corradi G., Crnkovic J., Dabagov S., Debevec P.T., Di Sciascio G., Di Stefano R., Drendel B., Druzhinin V.P., Duginov V.N., Eads M., Eggert N., Epps A., Fatemi R., Ferrari C., Fertl M., Fienberg A.T., Fioretti A., Flay D., Frankenthal A.S., Friedsam H., Frlez E., Froemming N.S., Fu C., Gabbanini C., Gaisser M., Ganguly S., Garcia A., George J., Gibbons L.K., Giovanetti K.L., Goadhouse S., Gohn W., Gorringe T., Grange J., Gray F., Haciomeroglu S., Halewood-Leagas T., Hampai D., Hazen E., Henry S., Hertzog D.W., Holzbauer J.L., Iacovacci M., Johnstone C., Johnstone J.A., Jungmann K., Sayed H.K., Kammel P., Karuza M., Kaspar J., Kawall D., Kelton L., Khaw K.S., Khomutov N.V., Kiburg B., Kim S.C., Kim Y.I., King B., Kinnaird N., Koop I.A., Kourbanis I., Krylov V.A., Kuchibhotla A., Kuchinskiy N.A., Lancaster M., Lee M.J., Lee S., Leo S., Li L., Logashenko I., Luo G., Lynch K.R., Lyon A., Marignetti S., Mastroianni S., Maxfield S., McEvoy M., Meadows Z., Merritt W., Mikhailichenko A.A., Miller J.P., Morgan J.P., Moricciani D., Morse W.M., Mott J., Motuk E., Nguyen H., Orlov Y., Osofsky R., Ostiguy J.-F., Palladino A., Pauletta G., Pitts K., Pocanic D., Pohlman N., Polly C., Price J., Quinn B., Raha N., Ramberg E., Rider N.T., Ritchie J.L., Roberts B.L., Rominsky M., Rubin D.L., Santi L., Schlesier C., Semertzidis Y.K., Shatunov Y.M., Shenk M., Smith A., Smith M.W., Soha A., Solodov E., Still D., Stöckinger D., Stuttard T., Swanson H.E., Sweigart D.A., Syphers M.J., Szustkowski S., Tarazona D., Teubner T., Tewlsey-Booth A.E., Tishchenko V., Venanzoni G., Volnykh V.P., Walton T., Warren M., Welty-Rieger L., Whitley M., Winter P., Wolski A., Won E., Wormald M., Wu W., Yang H., Yoshikawa C.
Autors Affiliation: Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell’INFN, Frascati, Italy Conference title:
More Information: The conference 2015 is organized by the Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna, Vienna University of Technology and the Stefan-Meyer Institute (SMI) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.
KeyWords: Fermilab; Standard deviation; Systematic uncertainties; The standard model, High energy physics
Graded Yb:YAG ceramic structures: design, fabrication and characterization of the laser performances
Authors: Toci G., Lapucci A., Ciofini M., Esposito L., Hostaša J., Piancastelli A., Gizzi L. A., Labate L., Ferrara P., Pirri A., Vannini M.
Abstract: Significant improvements in efficiency in high power, high repetition rate laser systems should come from the use of ceramic laser active elements suitably designed to mitigate the thermal and thermo-mechanical effects (TEs and TMEs) deriving from the laser pumping process. Laser active media exhibiting a controlled and gradual distribution of the active element(s) could therefore find useful applications in the laser-driven inertial confinement fusion systems, which are considered among the most promising energy source of the future (ultraintense laser pulses), and in medical applications (ultrashort laser pulses) The present work explores the flexibility of the ceramic process for the construction of YAG (Y3Al5O12) ceramic laser elements with a controlled distribution of the Yb doping, in view of the realization of structures modelled to respond to specific application. Two processing techniques are presented to prepare layered structures with a tailored modulation of the doping level, with the goal of reducing the peak temperature, the temperature gradients and also the thermallyinduced deformation of the laser material, thus mitigating the overall thermal effects. Tape casting in combination with thermal compression of ceramic tapes with a varying doping level is one of the presented techniques. To make this process as more adaptable as possible, commercial micrometric ceramic powders have been used. The results are compared with those obtained using nanometric powders and a shaping process based on the subsequent pressing of spray dried powders with a different doping level. Laser performance has been characterized in a longitudinally diode pumped laser cavity. The laser efficiency under high thermal load conditions has been compared to those obtained from samples with uniform doping, and for samples obtained with press shaping and tape casting, under the same conditions.
Conference title: Place:
KeyWords: Graded doping; Tape casted ceramics.; Ceramic materials; Laser pulses; Lasers; Medical applications; Powders; Pumping (laser); Semiconducting zinc compounds; Solid state lasers; Thermal effects; Ultrashort pulses; Ytterbium, Ceramic lasers; Diode-pumped; Fabrication and characterizations; High repetition rate lasers; Lasers and laser optics; Thermally-induced deformations; Thermo-mechanical effects; Ultraintense laser pulse; Thermally induced deformations, Laser materials processing
Thermal lens measurements in Yb-doped YAG, LuAG, Lu2O3, Sc2O3 ceramic lasers
Authors: Pirri A., Toci G., Ciofini M., Lapucci A., Gizzi LA., Labate L., Esposito L., Hostasa J., Vannini M.A.
Abstract: we report the last experimental results obtained measuring the thermal lens effect in Yb(1at.%):Lu2O3, Yb(1at.%):Sc3O3, Yb(10at.%):LuAG and Yb(10at.%):YAG ceramics. The experimental set-up apparatus using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor allows the comparison of the thermal lens obtained under lasing and non lasing conditions, in order to highlight differences in the thermal loading.
KeyWords: Yb:Lu2O3; Yb:Sc2O3; Yb:LuAG; Adaptive optics; Ceramic materials, Ceramic lasers; Experimental set up; Lasing conditions; Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors; Thermal lens; Thermal lens effects; Thermal loadings; Yag ceramics, Ytterbium
DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/497/1/012013 Connecting to view paper tab on IsiWeb: Click here
Far Infrared FTS for the FORUM Mission
Authors: Palchetti L., Olivieri M., Pompei C., Labate D., Brindley H., Di Natale G., Bianchini G.
Abstract: A wide-band FTS has been designed to perform the spectral observation of the entire infrared Earth\’s outgoing emission, including the far infrared portion, for the FORUM space mission.
Conference title: Place:
KeyWords: Earth (planet); Spectroscopy, Far infrared; Space missions; Spectral observations; Wide-band, Spacecraft instruments
Result from the Test Beam of a g(-2) electromagnetic calorimeter prototype at SLAC.
Anastasi A., Babuschi D., Cantatore G., Catanalotti S., Cauz D., Corradi G., Cimino R., Dabagov S., Di Sciascio G., Di Stefano R., Ferrari C., Fioretti A., Gabbanini C., Hampai D., Iacovacci M., Karuza M., Mastroianni S., Moricciani D., Pauletta G., Santi L., Venanzoni G.
Abstract: The moun anamaly (g-2)/2 has been measured to 0.54 parts per million by the E821 experiment at Brookhaven Lab, and at present there is a 3-to-4-standard deviation difference between the SM and experimental values. A new muon (g-2) experimental, E989, is being prepared at Fermilab that will improve the experimental error by a factoer of four to clarify this difference. A central component to reach this fourfold improvement in accuracy is the lead fluoride calorimeter and the high-precision laser calibration system. After reviewing the requirements and the choices adopted for these systems, we will report the results of a Test Beams at SLAC (Stanford) in which a prototype of a module of the calorimeter fully equipped with a prototype laser calibration system will be tested with a beams of electrons from 2 to 8 GeV.
100° Congresso Nazionale – Società Italiana di Fisica. Pisa, 23 settembre 2014. Sezione 1: Fisica Nucleare e subnucleare. Atti p. 32
Characterization of Yb:YAG active slab media based on a layered structure with different doping
Authors: Lapucci A., Ciofini M., Esposito L., Ferrara P., Gizzi LA., Hostaša J., Labate L., Pirri A., Toci G., Vannini M.
Abstract: Slabs with non-uniform doping distribution are studied with the aim of reducing thermal deformations in high-energy high-average-power Yb:YAG slab systems. We present a numerical analysis based on Finite Element Mesh (FEM) methods suitable to model non-uniform devices. The thermal variation of the refractive index, the end-faces deformations and the photo-elastic effect have been calculated in order to estimate the total thermal-lens effect. The stress distributions are also obtained. Some results of this numerical approach are compared to experimental thermal lens measurements in a simple geometry for both uniform and structured samples, in order to validate the numerical procedures. Finally we compare numerical simulations for different single- or double-sided pumping and cooling geometries. They show that structured slabs can reduce thermal gradients with respect to uniformly doped means with comparable absorption and geometry. This means a reduction of thermal lens effect and thus an increase of maximum allowed pump power loading. Previous literature reports some work made with structured slabs where higher doping was located in layers with lower pump radiation levels, in order to get a more uniform absorption. Interestingly our modeling indicates that reduced thermal effects are instead obtained when a higher doping is located close to the cooled surfaces.
KeyWords: Ceramic lasers; Finite element meshes; Numerical approaches; Numerical procedures; Slab lasers; Thermal deformation; Thermal lens effects; Yb:YAG laser, Engineering education; Finite element method; Geometry; High energy lasers; Refractive index; Stress concentration; Ytterbium, Deformation
Investigation of energy transfer from PALS iodine laser beam to shock wave generated in solid target relevant to shock ignition
Authors: Pisarczyk T., Kalinowska Z., Badziak J., Kasperczuk A., Borodziuk S., Rosiński M., Parys P., Chodukowski T., Gus’kov S.Yu., Demchenko N. N., Batani D., Antonelli L., Koester P., Gizzi L.A., Labate L., Cristoforetti G., Baffigi F., Ullschmied J., Krouský E., Pfeifer M., Renner O., Šmíd M., Skála J., Pisarczyk P. Abstract: The efficiency of the laser energy conversion to a shock wave has been investigated in solid targets irradiated by a single or two consecutive laser beams. The first laser pulse was used to produce the plasma simulating conditions relevant to shock ignition approach. Oneand two-layer planar targets (bulk Al and Cu alternatively covered by a thin CH layer) were used. The laser provided a 250 ps pulse within the intensity range of 1-50 PW/cm2 at the first and third harmonics with wavelengths of 1.315 and 0.438 µm, respectively. Three-frame interferometry and measurements of crater parameters were used as the main diagnostics. The contribution of fast electrons to ablation and the laser energy conversion into shock wave have been investigated for different conditions of the target irradiation, including the pre-plasma presence. 2D numerical simulations and theoretical analysis were carried out to support explanation of experimental results. Copyright Conference title: 40th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics. Finland, 1st—5th July 2013
Place: Espoo, Finland
More Information: Contributed Papers. Mulhouse: European Physical Society, 2013. ISBN 2-914771-84-3. – (Europhysics Conference Abstracts (ECA), P5.210)).
KeyWords: laser-matter interaction; plasma interferometry; shock wave generation; shock wave generation; fast electrons. The influence of preformed plasma on a laser-driven shock produced in a planar target at the conditions relevant to shock ignition.
Authors: Badziak J., Chodukowski T., Kalinowska Z., Parys P., Pisarczyk T., Rączka P., Rosiński M., Ryc L., Wolowski J., Zaras A., Gizzi L.A., Baffigi F., Cristoforetti G., Koester P., Labate L., Antonelli L., Richetta M., Batani D., Folpini G., Malka G., Maheut Y., Krouský E., Pfeifer M., Renner O., Šmíd M., Skála J., Ullschmied J., Kucharik M., Liska R., Rhee Y.-J., Consoli F., De Angelis R., Spindloe C.
Abstract: The effect of preformed plasma on a laser-driven shock produced in a planar target at the conditions relevant to the shock ignition scenario of ICF was investigated at the kilojoule PALS laser facility. Characteristics of the preformed plasma were controlled by the delay ∆t between the auxiliary beam (1ω, 7×1013 W/cm2) and the main 3ω, 250 ps laser pulse of intensity up to 1016 W/cm2, and measured with the use of 3-frame interferometry, ion diagnostics, an X-ray spectrometer and Ka imaging. Parameters of the shock produced in a CH(Cl) target (25 µm or 40 µm thick) by the intense 3ω laser pulse with energy ranging between 50 J and 200 J were determined by measuring the craters produced by the shock in a massive Cu target behind the layer of plastic. The volume and the shape of these craters was found to depend rather weakly on the preplasma thickness, which implies the same is true for the total energy of shocks and pressure generated by them. From the comparison of the measured crater parameters with those obtained in 2D simulations using the PALE code, it was estimated that for I3ω ≈ 1016 W/cm2 the pressure at the rear (non-irradiated) side of the 25-µm plastic layer reaches about 100 Mbar.
Conference title: 40th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics. – Finland, 1st – 5th July 2013
Place: Espoo, Finland
More Information: Contributed Papers. Mulhouse: European Physical Society, 2013. ISBN 2-914771-84-3. – (Europhysics Conference Abstracts (ECA), P2.203)).
KeyWords: Laser-driven; ICF; Shock ignition
Laser-Plasma Acceleration and Radiation Sources for Applications
Authors: Gizzi LA., Anania MP., Ciofini M., Esposito L., Ferrara P., Gatti G., Giulietti D., Grittani G., Hostasa J., Kando M., Krus M., Labate L., Lapucci A., Levato T., Oishi Y., Pirri A., Rossi F., Toci G., Vannini M.
Abstract: Laser-plasma acceleration is now established for a variety of applications while secondary sources are being developed and experimental exploration of electrodynamics in the strong field regime in starting. An overview of the field will be given along with a discussion on perspectives for possible future development of high average power, all-optical radiation sources.
Conference title: 10th Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim (CLEO-PR)
Place: Kyoto, JAPAN
KeyWords: High average power; Laser-plasma acceleration; Possible futures; Radiation source; Secondary sources; Strong field, Radiation, Plasma accelerators.
Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM): from measuring cell mechanical properties to guiding neuron growth
Authors: Pellegrino M., Orsini P., Pellegrini M., Tognoni E., Ascoli C., Baschieri P., Dinelli F.
Abstract: Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a type of scanning probe microscopy based on the continuous measurement of an ion current flowing through a pipette filled with an electrolyte solution, while the pipette apex approaches a non-conductive sample. This technique can be operated in environmental conditions such as those of cell cultures and does not require a direct contact between probe and sample. It is therefore particularly suitable for the investigation of living specimens. SICM was initially proposed as an instrument that could obtain topographic 3D images with high resolution. Later, simple modifications have been devised to apply a mechanical stimulus to the specimen via a solution flux coming out from the pipette aperture. This modified setup has been employed to measure cell membrane elasticity and to guide the growth cones of neurons for tens of micrometers, by means of repeated non-contact scanning. Both these applications require an accurate measurement of the mechanical forces acting on the cell surface, which can be obtained by combining SICM, Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and inverted optical microscopy in the same apparatus. In this configuration, a SICM pipette is approached to an AFM cantilever while monitoring the cantilever deflection as a function of the pressure applied to the pipette and the relative distance. In addition, the pipette aperture can be imaged in situ by exploiting the AFM operation, so that all the experimental parameters can be effectively controlled in the investigation of pressure effects on living cells.
Conference title: Optical Methods for Inspection, characterization and imaging of biomaterials (SPIE)
Place: Monaco, Germania
KeyWords: scanning ion conductance microscopy; atomic force microscopy; topographic image; cell mechanical properties; neuronal growth cone
Study of biological effects of LWFA electrons
Authors: Labate L., Andreassi M.G., Baffigi F., Bussolino GC., Colombetti G., Cristoforetti G., Di Martino F., Fulgentini L., Ghetti F., Giulietti A., Giulietti D., Köster P., Lenci F., Levato T., Salvadori P., Sgarbossa A., Traino C., Vaselli M., Gizzi L.A.
KeyWords: Plasma Physics
Towards laser-driven mini-linac\’s for biomedical uses
Authors: Giulietti A.
Abstract: A high-efficiency regime of acceleration in laser plasmas has been discovered recently, allowing table top equipment to deliver doses of interest for radiotherapy with electron bunches of suitable kinetic energy. A R&D program aimed to the realization of an innovative class of accelerators for medical uses, through radiobiological validation, is in progress at CNR, Pisa. Actually, biological effects of electron bunches from laser-driven electron accelerator are largely unknown. In radiobiology and radiotherapy, it is known that the early spatial distribution of energy deposition following ionizing radiation interactions with DNA molecule is crucial for the prediction of damages at cellular or tissue levels and during the clinical responses to this irradiation. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the radio-biological effects obtained with electron bunches from a laser-driven electron accelerator compared with bunches coming from medical radio-frequency-based linac\’s. To this purpose a multidisciplinary team including radiotherapists, biologists, medical physicists, laser and plasma physicists is working at CNR Campus and University of Pisa. Dose on samples is delivered alternatively by the \”laser-linac\” operating at the ILIL lab of Istituto Nazionale di Ottica and an RF-linac operating at Pisa S. Chiara Hospital. Experimental data are analyzed on the basis of suitable radiobiological models as well as with numerical simulation based on Monte Carlo codes. Possible collective effects are also considered in the case of ultrashort, ultradense bunches of ionizing radiation produced with the laser technique. This lecture will describe and shortly discuss most of the points above.
KeyWords: Plasmas; lasers; Transparency; Damage
Use of scanning ion conductance microscopy to map elastic properties of cell membranes
Authors: Pellegrino M., Orsini P., Pellegrini M., Tognoni E., Baschieri P., Dinelli F., Petracchi D., Ascoli C.
Abstract: We discuss on the feasibility of mapping the elastic properties of cellular regions with small thickness by means of a Scanning Ion Conductance Microscope employed to deliver mechanical stimuli in noncontact mode.
Conference title: Biophotonics 2011
KeyWords: cell membrane; elasticity; SICM
Selective inhibition of polymerization enables sub-diffraction optical lithography
Authors: Harke B., Bianchini P., Anjum F., Brandi F., Diaspro A.
Abstract: We show that after two-photon excitation of the photo initiator we are able to inhibit the polymerization process with a second beam of different wavelength. For achieving sub-diffraction resolution this is one of the key elements. Remarkably is that these experiments can be performed with a commercially available STED microscope slightly modified for two-photon-excitation (TPE). First experiments featuring an enhanced resolution will be presented.
KeyWords: Two-Photon-Lithography; Nanoscopy; Sub-diffraction writing
A novel single-shot, spectrally resolved X-ray imaging technique of ICF relevant plasmas
Authors: Labatea L., Cecchettia C.A., Ciricosta O., Köster P., Levato T., Gizzia L.A.
Abstract: A new diagnostic tool has recently been developed, which allows to get 2D images of X-ray sources with simultaneous energy encoded information. This is achieved by using a pinhole camera scheme in which a CCD camera, forced to operate in the single-photon regime, is used as a detector. The use of this method, initially limited to a single pinhole, multi-shot basis, has recently been extended to single-shot experiments typical of large scale installations using custom pinhole arrays of sub-10µm diameter. Preliminary tests have been carried out at the PALS facility and the diagnostics has been successfully employed in a PW environment in a recent experiment at RAL. The details of the method as well as some results from such recent experiments will be given.
KeyWords: Inertial Confinement Fusion; X-ray diagnostics; X-ray imaging; Charge-Coupled Device; fast electron transport; ultrashort X-ray sources
Pulsed radiobiology with laser-driven plasma accelerators
Authors: Giulietti A., Andreassi M.G., Greco C.
Abstract: Recently, a high efficiency regime of acceleration in laser plasmas has been discovered, allowing table top equipment to deliver doses of interest for radiotherapy with electron bunches of suitable kinetic energy. In view of an R&D program aimed to the realization of an innovative class of accelerators for medical uses, a radiobiological validation is needed. At the present time, the biological effects of electron bunches from the laser-driven electron accelerator are largely unknown. In radiobiology and radiotherapy, it is known that the early spatial distribution of energy deposition following ionizing radiation interactions with DNA molecule is crucial for the prediction of damages at cellular or tissue levels and during the clinical responses to this irradiation. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the radio-biological effects obtained with electron bunches from a laser-driven electron accelerator compared with bunches coming from a IORT-dedicated medical Radio-frequency based linac\’s on human cells by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN). To this purpose a multidisciplinary team including radiotherapists, biologists, medical physicists, laser and plasma physicists is working at CNR Campus and University of Pisa. Dose on samples is delivered alternatively by the \”laser-linac\” operating at ILIL lab of Istituto Nazionale di Ottica and an RF-linac operating for IORT at Pisa S. Chiara Hospital. Experimental data are analyzed on the basis of suitable radiobiological models as well as with numerical simulation based on Monte Carlo codes. Possible collective effects are also considered in the case of ultrashort, ultradense bunches of ionizing radiation.
KeyWords: Biological effects; Medical applications; Laser plasma; Radiation interactions; Pélasma accelerators; Protons; Radiotherapy